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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

我判断摆烂不是看言论而是看球队动作的。所以,即使球队说他们没有摆烂,但是签了一大批落选的自由球员,同时报告明星球员伤病缠身,这时候你就知道,他们是在摆烂了。

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About 200 million migrants, half of whom are women, sent $445 billion to their families in Asia, Latin America and Africa in 2016, the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) said last Wednesday.
反对:《至暗时刻》目前还没有被一所影评机构评为最佳电影。
10. You've just been acting weird, OK?

The public prosecutor has decided to release several individuals and will proceed with the prosecution of at least five others.
智能手机巨头小米创始人雷军同意此观点,将AlphaGo的取胜描述为人工智能领域的突破。
['?nik'spektidli]

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

该不该对住房租金设“涨停板”?反对者称会减少供给

Song “Chang’er”(Li Yugang and three Chinese astronauts)
But the change in Wall Street’s — and Silicon Valley’s — appreciation of Mr Cook is down to more than just the 70m iPhones Apple is expected to sell this quarter or the $42bn in sales generated in the previous.
Sure, it plays music, has a calendar, and even entertains the kids, but it could probably also get hacked — just like everything else.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

and the regime's first move—cashing in Lou Williams to the Rockets for a first-round pick—is a clear sign they realize that they must do everything to retain their own top-three protected pick in June's draft.
In 1995 Dutch troops serving as UN peacekeepers failed to prevent Bosnian Serb forces murdering 8,000 Muslim men and boys in the town of Srebrenica in eastern Bosnia.
For the fourth year in a row, the top five places continue to be dominated by the same five intercontinental EMBAs. Tiemba came top this year not by spectacularly outperforming its rivals but thanks to a strong performance across most indicators. In particular, the alumni have the second highest salary on average ($324,000) behind alumni from the Kellogg/HKUST programme ($408,000). Tiemba is also ranked second for career progression and fourth for work experience.

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 排名前50的IT富豪中,有五位是80后,其中包括滴滴出行现年33岁的首席执行官程维。
  • 一天20元:一个关于深圳房租的真实故事
  • In P2P lending, borrowers are matched with investors, who are encouraged to put their money into the loans due to higher returns than they could get at state banks.
  • 村民刚住新居就遭拆迁 官员:配合城中村改造
  • 百变加产品说明会北京站震撼来袭!
  • 《广告狂人》对时装的影响体现在品牌的发展当中,例如香蕉共和国(Banana Republic)就推出了《广告狂人》系列(这个系列是与该剧的服装主管贾妮·布赖恩特[Janie Bryant]联合设计的),而且很多心照不宣的地方在设计中更加随处可见:裁剪和印花,褶边和接缝;它的影响渗入了在秀台上普遍存在的一种鲜明理念:如果你缺乏灵感或者产生了审美怀疑,就去回顾60年代吧。
    尽管Facebook在中国被屏蔽,腾讯还是将微信同Facebook连接起来,这意味着中国以外的用户可以同时使用微信和世界上最流行的社交网络。在印尼、泰国和菲律宾等东南亚国家,这对腾讯是有好处的,因为这些国家拥有很多Facebook用户。腾讯针对这三个市场都推出了各自语言版本的微信。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 江苏楼市开局如何?过半专家判断总体缓和上涨, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

缺乏定制基因 传统卫浴转型步履维艰

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

家居业上市队伍逐渐壮大 对资本合作蠢蠢欲动

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • Actuaries put a financial value on risk for instance, the chances of a hurricane destroying a beachfront home or the long-term liabilities of a pension system. In a world awash with risks of the natural and manmade variety, the profession is booming, says Tony Lee, publisher of CareerCast.com. In addition, he says, 'there's a severe shortage of actuaries, ' so wages are rising. (The median salary for actuaries in 2010 was $87, 650, according to the Labor Department.)
    Company: Nation Waste, Inc.
  • 正如英国东安格利亚大学影视高级讲师布霄特?米尔斯所言,《老友记》是首部讲述20来岁年轻人所面临的问题的情景剧。而看剧就像在读一个年轻人的人生故事。
    帕拉莫尔《欢笑过后》
    My favourite award every year is for a spurious renaming of a common noun. A couple of years ago, Speedo rechristened the swimming cap a “hair management system”. Last year, Falke went one better by renaming a line of socks “Life Performance Solutions”.
    Jon Copestake, editor of the EIU Worldwide Cost of Living Index, said one of the most notable changes was the rising costs in Australia, with Sydney third in the list and Melbourne fifth. Sandwiched between them was Oslo in Norway.
    《Look What You Made Me Do》(《看看你们都让我做了什么》)这首单曲可以载入史册了,流行音乐学者们可能会世世代代地讨论它是否是一次绝妙的公关行动。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 南沙湾地区:规划成粤港澳大湾区海上门户
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 沪二手房中介门店关掉15% 成交量触及生死线

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

['spekju.l?tiv]
学校依赖于多种多样的技术,确保授课的活泼和互动性,包括虚拟课堂、直播授课以及多媒体教学资料。校友们被要求对授课质量进行评价,并说明在线考试的效果如何。结果令人鼓舞。在线授课质量似乎越来越好。在线授课所有方面的得分都比前几年高,这表明学员满意度提高。
[strein]
单词elegant 联想记忆:
与此同时,前第五届和声明星 Camila Cabello证明了她的独唱生涯正在起飞,因为她的首张单曲《Havana》获得了最佳流行音乐奖。她的胜利意味着Taylor Swift失去了另一个奖项,尽管这对于歌手来说只是众多收获中的一个,但是近期她因为一年的沉寂过后又重新成为焦点。
周二在华盛顿DC的乔治市附近,人们沿着被淹的波托马克河在雨中漫步。
SplashData公司称,在娱乐网站上使用和邮箱及社交网站相同的密码尤其不安全。

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • May the beauty and joy of New Year remain with you throughout the new year!
  • 股市印花税收入暴增 房地产投资企稳
  • sup在下面+ply重叠,折叠→重叠下去→供应[下去],补给
    Vawter 使用仿生腿在芝加哥一栋高楼里向上爬了103个阶梯,但是仿生腿的设计者们仍然在尝试提高它的性能。为了使它能适用于日常生活,设计者们必须让它更轻更薄。它的衍生品(充气仿生腿)可以满足陆军对于仿生腿的阶段性目标——行走一万步不用充电。
  • 机构:2016一线城市房价涨幅将达5%以上
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • [kri'eitiv]
    Still, the optimistic view is that several roadblocks to recovery -- an over-indebted consumer, a moribund housing market and shellshocked banks -- are no longer holding back hiring. Barring an unforeseen shock to the economy, this could mean 2013 will be another year of slow but steady growth.[qh]
  • 重要的是要记住即使是工作空缺总数减少了,也有很多公司仍然在增加员工,而总数减少的原因仅仅是因为有些公司裁员人数比较多而已。
    对工业大宗商品需求的下降尤为明显。中国房地产和制造业的严重供应过剩在近几个月抑制了对新产能的投资,进而削弱了对各种原材料的需求。
  • 总的来说,在选择就读EMBA的原因中,创业排在最末(10分中得5.5分)。学员的主要动机是学习管理(9.1分)、拓宽人脉(8.3分)及增加收入(8.1分)。
    Bill Gates topped the list of the world's richest billionaires for the 17th time in 22 years, it has been revealed.
  • 在周五晚上,金州勇士队以106比94击败了芝加哥公牛队,将战绩提升为14胜0负。库里本场比赛拿下27分,而卫冕冠军也距离NBA历史最佳开局纪录只有一场之遥。
    A robust LinkedIn presence is crucial to any job search. You know that. Your manager knows that. And your manager probably knows that you know that – so she'll be concerned when you go from having a bare-bones profile on Monday to one jacked with additional work history, new connections, status updates and recommendations by Friday. "Don't go from zero to 500 overnight, because that can be quite obvious," Foss cautions。
    据《每日经济新闻》网报道,经过一项最新调查显示,经济和金融类院校毕业生最有'钱'途。国内5大财经类高校毕业生的平均月薪在1万元以上。
  • 本周二,高等教育研究机构Quacquarelli Symonds(QS)公布的最新《QS世界大学学科排名》显示,中国约有88所大学的学科进入全球400强。
    节目20 小品《今天的幸福2》,沈腾 马丽 杜晓宇 王琦
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 湛江市遂溪县官湖新村昨日张灯结彩宣告乔迁 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

没了安全 遑论安居

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

北京进口家具线上线下皆降价促销 市场仍遇冷

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

家居行业发展趋势:电商与店商的接合

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

15个热点城市房价环比止涨 金九银十或落空

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 成长的故事:现代的巴黎郊区与20世纪70年代的旧金山,这两部影片以残酷的城市和无尽的热情,把成长为女人的可怕惊险之路变得戏剧化。
  • "The guy must have weighted the pros and cons of the situation: he had a great chance to survive a stranded elevator, but would have been doomed if he left homework undone," joked @Zealshifang.
  • 强大消费需求成为增长“主引擎”

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 该报告还指出,自2013年以来,中国已成为全球最大的工业机器人市场。并且在近年来,中国国内的供应商通过提供更多高端产品,正在向供应链上游进军。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • Bono and The Edge collaborated with Tina Turner on this, the sultriest James Bond song ever. This is a song sung by someone you will be attracted to, damn it, and for whom you would do just about anything. Tina Turner has more erotic confidence in one Golden eye theme than most of us will ever experience in our whole lifetimes. James Bond songs had never been this deliciously sweaty before. It's like pheromones set to music.
    当时的杜兰特身高6尺9寸,体重只有185磅,我很惊讶在高中赛打到一半时他没有被撞坏。幸运的是,杜兰特不靠在大前锋位置上力量抗衡赚钱,他主要依赖他拿手的急停跳投。
    《三生三世十里桃花》是唐七在2009年出版的一部网络小说。今年,这部作品被改编成电影、电视剧以及电脑游戏。
  • 房地产市场低迷降低了对铁矿石、能源和其他大宗商品的需求。全球供应增加加剧了供需差距并推低了原材料价格。尽管中国出台了多项措施,例如去年11月的降息,但预计这种情况近期不会发生变化。

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 6月28日
  • 27省上半年城乡居民收入出炉 距离买房还有多远
  • 总之,尤吉利用特伦斯-罗斯、贾里德-萨林杰以及三个选秀权换来了两名季后赛老兵。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 中国建材行业2016年B2B发展报告发布
  • Household substance abuse
  • 天津港事件对涂料行业影响长远 防火涂料成重点
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

经济数据里的生活变迁

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 4月北京房租价格微涨
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 楼市去库存任务仍未结束:分化加剧 复苏尚需时日
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

“我想,在21世纪,人们绝对会质疑这件事。”

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

Will Smith had a very successful career in the late 80s and early 90s as the second half of rap duo DJ Jazzy Jeff and the Fresh Prince. But in spite of his financial success, Smith did not manage his money well. It's a pretty classic tale, really. New fame, lots of money, no future plans, and lots of fancy toys added up to a lot of overspending. This lack of oversight and fiscal irresponsibility landed him on the brink of bankruptcy. He owed the government back taxes that he had not paid.
但是在对遗骸进行分析后,研究人员发现这些坟墓被重复利用了多次。有些坟墓中包括有10多个的死者,多次的重复埋葬有待于进一步的研究,研究人员写到。
报告称,名校学生的创业意愿较低,或许因为创业机会成本高。
佳士得把汉斯·梅姆灵(Hans Memling)于15世纪创作的佛兰芒风格圣母与圣子油画从拍卖会上撤掉,以350多万英镑私下出售,所以影响了这次的拍卖总额。该拍卖行的18世纪前绘画大师作品主管亨利·佩蒂弗(Henry Pettifer)说:“拍卖市场非常挑剔。新鲜作品的数量很少。”他指的是私人极少收藏有博物馆级别的作品。
《火星救援》获评喜剧/音乐类最佳影片。
Classic cars:Prices plummet as an enormous supply of post-war classics, hidden away on an off-shore island, becomes available for the first time in 50 years. Collectors are especially eager to find Packards, Studebakers, Hudsons, Nashes, Kaisers, and Henry J’s. More’s the surprise because all of the cars are in running condition and are used as daily drivers.
民主党能在中期选举中重新夺回美国众议院多数党地位吗?
remembrance
狄更斯在《双城记》中描写法国大革命时,距离事件发生已有近一个世纪。而我则是在今年12月就回顾盘点这一年。因此,我在此描述的某些趋势,可能将在可预见的未来继续存在,而另一些趋势则可能已经开始减弱。作为当今时代“最哗众取宠的权威人士”之一,我只要求各位在阅读这篇评论文章时记住一点:过去的业绩并不能保证将来的表现。
Supporting Actress in a Mini-Series or Movie: Regina King, “American Crime”

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

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Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • Further, 32 out of the 50 new selected female billionaires started their businesses from scratch.
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 我国经济基本面好,商业银行资本充足率、拨备覆盖率比较高,可动用的工具和手段多。对守住不发生系统性金融风险的底线,我们有信心和底气、有能力和办法。
  • 春节楼市暂休眠 业内称节后房价上涨将更明显
  • Put succinctly, there was no way to describe or explain the crosscurrents of 2014. And I’m not convinced that the benefit of hindsight will make what happened this year any clearer years from now.
  • 评论称“让人人买得起房子”的想法非常愚蠢
  • 上述消息源还称,苹果将在明年10月发布一款12.9英寸的平板电脑,“目标消费群是北美的教育市场(和)……生产商是广达电脑(Quanta Computer)”。有报道称,三星也在研发尺寸在12至13英寸之间的平板电脑,而现在看来,“这些大尺寸平板电脑将极大地影响超极本需求”几乎是板上钉钉的事了。新款“iPad Max”,搭载整合了键盘和电池的新款外壳之后,实际上就是一台笔记本电脑,很有可能在高中生和大学生之中成为主流产品——这一人群需要比现有iPad和iPad Mini产品更好的内容创造工具。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 受飞利浦降价影响 LED厂东贝5月营收下滑30%
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • Global warming and a powerful El weather event combined to make 2015 the planet’s hottest year since modern records began in the 1800s, according to scientists, who warned this year could be even warmer.
  • 该部门期望今年消费增长仍然能够强有力地带动经济增长。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

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